Why is such equality an ideal, and equality of what, precisely? Not only in its assumptions, but in its stated goals as well, economics too often equates all market activity with human welfare and well-being.
For utilitarianism this means that all enlightened personal interests have to be fairly aggregated.
With a broader and more adequate interpretation of what it means for one a situation to be worse than another, however, justifying private appropriation and, a fortiori, all further ownership rights, becomes much more difficult. Today the following postulates of equality are generally considered morally required.
If Main Street is unemployed and undercompensated, capital can only travel so far down Prosperity Road. Applied to this political domain, the presumption of equality requires that everyone, regardless of differences, should get an equal share in the distribution unless certain types of differences are relevant and justify, through universally acceptable reasons, unequal distribution.
Sound macroeconomic management Reorientation of the role of government and the enhancement of its core competence in providing leadership through public policy deserves the highest priority.
Strong adherence to and respect for the rule of law Absence of corruption and other vices. The three richest people in the world possess more financial assets than the lowest 48 nations combined.
This changed dramatically with the development of quantitative economic measures after World War I. That would in fact be morally perverse.
Culture of saving and investment A culture and habit of saving and investing productively to generate wealth for individuals, households, communities and the nation has to be cultivated and promoted. Equal opportunity prevails when human beings effectively enjoy equal realms of possibility.
The sugar index was never adopted, but it is illustrative of the distinction between direct measures, which tell us about performance on a specific variable, and indicators, which can be taken as reflections of social development. Equal consideration is thus accorded to all persons and their interests.
However, appropriate skills and capabilities would have to be put in place. There are economies with high income inequality and relatively low wealth inequality such as Japan and Italy.
Since the s, the Finnish system of accountability was redeveloped entirely from the bottom up.
As we have recently witnessed, wrong measures can lead to a false sense of security or euphoria at the very moment crisis is preparing to strike. These experiences help students gain the knowledge and skills necessary for future work tasks.Key Findings.
A well-educated and well-trained population is essential for a country's social and economic well-being. Education plays a key role in providing individuals with the knowledge, skills and competences needed to participate effectively in society and in the economy.
We feel instinctively that societies with huge income gaps are somehow going wrong. Richard Wilkinson charts the hard data on economic inequality, and shows what gets worse when rich and poor are too far apart: real effects on health, lifespan, even such basic values as trust.
Namibia is largely desert, ranchland with a long coastline on the South Atlantic, and borders South Africa, Botswana and Angola. The country’s natural mineral riches and tiny population of about million () have made it an upper-middle-income country.
Political stability and sound economic management have helped anchor poverty reduction, however this has not yet been accompanied by. Get Full Text in PDF. Table of Contents.
Introduction; Tools and Measures; Measures of National Income; Need for New Theory; Measures and Indicators; Characteristics of a Successful Indicator. The income gap between rich and poor has increased steadily in line with economic progress, but only recently, with unemployment and austerity measures hitting the poor and “squeezed middle” the most, has public resentment against inequality reached a peak.
Working for health equity; Paying for the positive impact; Socioeconomic disadvantage and onset of disabling chronic condition in childhood; The Role of Social Determinants in Tackling Health Objectives in a Context of Economic Crisis.Download